Hunt The Saxons Project

2005 - 2007

The Faversham Society Archaeological Research Group (FSARG) is part of the Faversham Society,  Registered Charity  250945

 

Copyright of all items belongs to the Faversham Society.  Please address all enquiries to:

 

Dr Patricia Reid

Honorary Archaeologist for the Faversham Society, Director FSARG

Fleur de Lis Heritage Centre

10-13 Preston St

Faversham

Kent

ME13 8NS

 

Telephone: 01795  590726

Email: faversham@btinternet.com

Download the report here

Contents

 

Part A:  Hunt the Saxons project summary

 

1. Introduction

 

2. Location

 

3. Background

 

               a)  Geology

 

               b)  History

 

               c)  Archaeology

 

4. Methodology

 

5. Results and interpretation

 

               a) general characteristics of test pits

 

               b) findings by chronological period

 

                         i)  Prehistoric settlement  (before AD43)

 

                         ii) The Roman occupation  (AD43-410)

 

                         iii) Anglo Saxons  (AD410-1050)

 

                         iv) Medieval  (AD1050-1550)

 

                         v) Post medieval (AD1550-1800)

 

                         vi) Modern times (AD1800-now)

 

6.   Conclusions

 

7.  Proposals for future

 

8.  Site archives

 

9.  Reference

 

Appendix 1:  Hunt the Saxons Field activities 2005-7

 

Appendix 2:   Hunt the Saxons Field activity maps 2005-7

 

All photographs unless otherwise indicated have been taken by members of FSARG

 

 

 

 

 

Hunt the Saxons Project Summary

 

 

 

1.  Introduction

 

 

In 2005 a community archaeology group was launched in Faversham, under the umbrella of the Faversham Society, and named the Faversham Society Archaeological Research Group (FSARG). The aim was stated as:

 

 “The Society needs to build up a small but enthusiastic group of volunteers who can carry out light-touch archaeological research in the town and its environs. This would involve much ‘desk-top’ research, but, to be truly archaeological, must involve practical investigations. The following project stands a good chance of beginning to establish a group of volunteers and raising local awareness of the contribution (and the fun) that can come from archaeological research”.

In the interests of sustainability, FSARG would operate on a near zero budget, relying on donations of basic equipment to get started, and small scale private funding for consumables and expert training. Access to the facilities of the Fleur De Lis Heritage centre was a great advantage, especially for archive material and communicating with the townspeople.

 

Planning for the initial stages of the project was based upon the assumption that nearly everyone taking part was a beginner in relation to archaeology.  The intention was to induct members into all stages of the archaeological process, from desk top research to the writing of final reports, so that they would be truly in control of the whole process.  One essential aspect of this was that the first project would have a clear, simple research aim, based on solid information and with the potential to produce findings which would make a genuine contribution to the understanding of Faversham’s development.  Another was that the activity should interface as much as possible with the people of Faversham.

 

These priorities lead to a three year project called Hunt the Saxons.  In the mid –late 19th century in the Kingsfield part of Faversham,  an exceptionally rich Anglo Saxon cemetery was uncovered in the course of railway building and brickearth extraction.  This was looted by workers and the finds sold to antiquarian collectors.  Although there are assumptions about where these people actually lived, almost no evidence existed to support these.  Therefore, finding evidence for Saxon occupation would be an important step forward. In addition, such a project would require focusing on the built up part of Faversham, ensuring maximum contact with local people.

 

 

 

2. Location

 

The part of Faversham commonly assumed to be the site of early Anglo Saxon settlement was the corner nowadays enclosed by Tanners St, Lower West Street and South Road.  It is also assumed that this part of Faversham carried on into the medieval period as the main site for the common people, with the market mentioned in Domesday, a Yeldhall (Guildhall)  and gaol.  The west and northern boundary of this area is formed by the Westbrook stream, which was harnessed for power in the early medieval period.  The Westbrook feeds into tidal Faversham Creek, documented as a port from cAD1100 onward.

 

The first two years were focused on the Tanners St/ lower West Street area.  In 2005, eleven locations were chosen, spread around the study area.  2006 was more selective,  exploring  the observed contrasts between the low-lying Westbrook side of Tanners St and the higher ground to the east: for the latter,  permission was obtained to dig a four square metres Test Pit on a set-aside piece of land tucked away between the Almshouses and the eastern side of Tanners St.  During this phase, surveying skills were developed and applied, with two geo-resistivity surveys carried out in the Tanners Street area.

 

In 2007, focus shifted to two other parts of Faversham with potential for  Anglo Saxon settlement.  In Domesday, Faversham is listed as a Royal estate under Edward the Confessor.  It is assumed that  St Savior’s  Abbey built in 1147 by King Stephen as his burial place  was located  on the site of the former royal manor estate (the Abbot had the title of Lord of the Manor of Faversham).  So one area chosen was the Abbey Place/Arden’s House area, as close to the former Abbey site as possible without infringing the scheduling. Three geo-resistivity surveys were carried out here and four excavations carried out, along with wall surveys.  A second site chosen for investigation was a large garden area which seemed to be the only area of undisturbed land near to the Post Office site where a Saxon loom weight (the sole evidence for Anglo Saxon occupation) had been found in 1954: two excavations were carried out here.

 

Exact locations can be seen in Appendices 1 and 2.

 

 

 

3. Background

 

a) Geology

 

The triangle of land enclosed by Tanners St, Lower West Street and South Street consists mainly of Upper Chalk covered by Head Brickearth, with a maximum altitude of 11 metres.  The Upper Chalk dips sharply down wards to the north.  To the west, the Westbrook cuts a steep sided trench, floored with alluvial deposits.  This valley widens to the north and has been drastically modified just to the north west of the area to produce Stonebridge Ponds.  The creek side downstream from the Ponds and north of the study area has also been heavily modified to create industrial land and wharves but underlying the make up are deep alluvial deposits that continue to accumulate in the present day creek bed, and the former creek side banks.

 

The geology is very similar in the other two locations, although at Abbey Place the Upper Chalk has dipped further down.

 

 

b) History

 

Faversham has a long and colourful history.

 

Little evidence has been recorded for prehistoric times up until the Late Iron Age, when so-called ‘Belgic’ people were numerous in the area. The Faversham area is, however,  awash with Roman remains ranging in date from the earliest (e.g. Claudian pottery at Syndale) to the latest (a few coins of the late 4th century).  The same is true all along Watling Street between Canterbury and Rochester.  Watling Street was laid down possibly even during the AD43 conquest and linked Dubris (Dover) and Rutupiae (Richborough) with Durovernum (Canterbury), Durobrovis (Rochester) and Londinium.  It became lined to north and south with villas and their estates.  Yet the sheer frequency of buildings and cemeteries in the Faversham area does suggest that maybe this is a small settlement called Durolevum listed in the Antonine Itinerary (early 3rd century).

 

The Venerable Bede, writing in AD731 from his Northumbrian monastery, tells us that post-Roman Kent was invaded and settled by a Germanic tribe called the Jutes. AD449 is the traditional date for the arrival of Hengist and Horsa at Ebbsfleet, Thanet, at the invitation of Vortigern, King of Britannia: Hengist becomes, according to the story, the first king of Kent.  The extremely important finds of the Kingsfield cemetery have already been mentioned.  Later in the Saxon period the town is mentioned in various charters and is known to form the centre of an administrative unit, the Hundred of Faversham.  By Domesday it is described as a prosperous little market town, owned by the crown.

 

There is abundant historical evidence for the importance of Faversham in the Middle Ages. The most important high status building in Faversham Town was Faversham Abbey, founded by King Stephen as the Royal Mausoleum of his descent line, the House of Blois.  Even before his death in 1154, it was a white elephant, and only ever had a small body of monks and an inadequate portfolio of income generating properties. Nevertheless, it was an imposing building, demolished soon after 1538. The inner and outer gatehouses survived until the 18th century but now only the outer gate guest house, a section of the west wall of the Abbey and the superb Abbey Barns survive above ground.  A lot of small scale PPG16 archaeological interventions have taken place in the Abbey area in recent years but have not yet been integrated into the main account.

 

There have been no large scale archaeological investigations of medieval Faversham Town comparable with those at the Abbey and much of our knowledge comes from standing buildings and documents.  The existing medieval buildings are nearly all 15th-16th century, with a few possibly 14thcentury.

 

The post medieval period from AD 1550 to 1800 is packed with change in the Faversham area and the products of this are still very visible in the rural and urban landscapes.  The rapidly growing gunpowder industry utilized the water of the Westbrook for power at a series of mills, the Creek wharves for transport and restructured Stonebridge Pond for its purposes.

 

Brewing developed on a large scale in the Abbey St/Court St area. Fishing (including oyster farming), and local horticulture continued to grow in scale and organization. The great number of handsome 17th and 18th century house frontages in the town bear witness to this growth and prosperity.  Edward Jacobs’ vivid account and map of Faversham published in 1774.  is witness to this.

 

In Faversham town, the 19th century continued to be busy.  The arrival of the railways (1850) made the town an important junction point and the spectacular expansion of the brick industry in this part of north Kent, producing the Kentish Stocks of which a lot of south London is built led to a great expansion in housing for workers.  Cement, engineering and agricultural processing industries grew up, the brewing and gunpowder industries continued to expand and develop.

 

In the Tanners St / West St, area the Gas-Light and Coke Company, established in 1830 continued to expand until it came to dominate this corner of town and the detailed historic maps of the time (1865, 1895, and 1907) show tenements packed into every space.  By the 20th century, this area was going downhill, as was, for less obvious reasons, the Abbey Street area.  The 20th century for Faversham is a period of loss – first the gunpowder,  cement and bricks, and, later on, one of the  big breweries, the Gas Works,  and even much of the  hop and fruit growing in the surrounding area.  The working barges, oyster fishing and ship yard have gone, tenements have been demolished, and the character of the town has changed enormously.

 

 

c) Archaeology

 

Within the Tanners St/ West street area, very little archaeology has been recorded.  The only systematic archaeology was on the site of the demolished gas works in 1992, prior to the building of a supermarket.  This investigation, carried out by the Canterbury Archaeological Trust (CAT) , was limited because of the toxic and waterlogged nature of the ground, but the locations of the medieval bankside were located just to the north of West Street and a sherd of 13th century pottery found.

 

For the Abbey Place/Arden’s House area, information comes mainly from the 1965 excavation of St Savior’s Abbey.  The outline of the main buildings was established and a huge amount of artefacts found e.g. glazed tiles, dressed stone fragments, pottery.  To the northeast of the Abbey, a small Romano-British villa was also found in 1965, itself overlying ‘Belgic’ ditches which yielded much Belgic pottery.  No signs of the hypothetical late Saxon- early Norman manor, however, were found.  Across the road from Arden’s House, foundations of the gatehouse were found in 1979.

 

The closeness of the Saxon loom weight find to the East Street site has already been mentioned.  The loom weight was spotted during clearance of the site for the building of the Post Office in 1954.  On the site of the demolished Faversham Institute opposite the East Street site, more formal excavation took place in 1984.  Rubbish pits were found mostly with post medieval content but one yielded 115 sherds of mid-2nd century Roman pottery.  Just to the north of the site, investigation prior to the building of the Tesco garage in 1995 revealed a ditch dated to the Romano British period (MKE 15321 - no report available).

 

 

 

4. Methodology

 

Appendix 1 shows the activities undertaken over the 3 years of the project.

 

Small test pits were excavated in 30 cm spits by hand.  This strategy was chosen because of the lack of experience of most of the volunteers - context identification in small excavations is very challenging.  All excavated material was meticulously sieved, giving100% recovery of archaeological material.  All larger pits were excavated using single context methodology and sampling methods were used for some contexts.  The maximum depth for health and safety reasons was 1.2 metres.  Most Test Pits took a team of around six people 3 days to fully excavate and sieve.

 

In nearly all cases, the location was in a garden.  Householders were very interested in the activity and gave lots of support.  Maximum care was taken in respecting the condition of the garden,   for example, all spoil went into builders’ bags and turf was replaced carefully after backfilling.

 

Only eighteen of the twenty seven Test Pits were excavated down to the maximum possible depth.  Some Test Pits (11, 17, 17a, 23b, 25) contained higher level features that were left undisturbed.  Two Test Pits (12, 27) reached the natural soil at around sixty centimetres down.  In two cases, time simply ran out for access to the site.

 

Finds processing took place simultaneously so that useful information could be fed back immediately. Further post excavation work took place in early autumn, with report writing deadlined for the end of November.  Copies of Test Pit reports were given to all host householders, and posted on the FSARG website www.community-archaeology.org.uk  (set up December 2005).

 

 

 

5. Results and interpretation

 

Detailed reports for the Test Pits relevant to this HER entry are attached to this report.  It should be remembered that these are primarily for a general audience.

 

The following summary account generalizes across the project, highlighting some of the most important findings.

 

a) General characteristics of the Test Pits

 

A characteristic feature of nearly all pits was a top layer, between 30 and 50 cm deep, of ash and clinker dominated deposits.  This was usually associated with  large quantities of pottery, glass, clay pipes and other easily dated artefacts, and is interpreted as 19th-early 20th century fire grate  and other rubbish dumping, a practice  carried out within living memory.  The absence of this layer in a few Test Pits (27, 28) was significant.

 

What happened below the ash, however, varied considerably, ranging from demolition layers to courtyards to the graduated churn of a continuously dug garden soil.  One of the most striking general features, however, was the occurrence of medieval pottery in 92% of the Test Pits and in 74% of all spits and contexts.  Although usually residual, it was sometimes clearly in stratified deposits (e.g. in TPs 36, 27 and 25): in those cases, single context excavation was used.  19th and 20th century pottery was found in all Test Pits and in 78% of spit/contexts although distributed less evenly, being usually overwhelmingly concentrated in Spit 1.  Much of the 19th-20th century pottery, and indeed the post medieval 16th-18th century pottery, were in situ in secondary dump contexts.

 

Of the eighteen that reached a depth of 1.2 metres, half were still dominated by post medieval and later finds to the base of the pit.  In four instances, however, (TPs 36, 14, 23a and 35) the lowest level had medieval material as the dominant content and three (TPs 1, 9 and 26) had Roman pottery as the commonest type, by weight in Spit 4.

 

 

b) Findings by chronological periods

 

i)  Prehistoric settlement (pre AD43)

 

Very little evidence of prehistoric activity was found in the Hunt the Saxons (HSX) excavations because of the great depth of the archaeology in Faversham Town.  Overall, ten small worked flints were identified and two tiny sherds of what could be prehistoric pottery.  Only two of the flints, associated with possible debitage and not associated with any later materials could be seen as other than residual.  These were found at a depth of ninety centimetres in TP28, a pit dug in the grounds of the Almshouses and relatively remote from post medieval and modern habitation.  At 11.64 metres, this pit was also the highest in altitude of all the HSX pits.

 

 

ii) The Roman occupation   (AD43-410)

 

Eight of the Test Pits produced Roman artefacts.  TPs 1 and 9, close together on the higher ground behind the Bull Inn, produced the most, including substantial fragments of black burnished coarse ware, a chunk of lava quern stone, a coin of Constans (mid 4th century) the base of a fine ware colour-coated jar and a number of fragments of Roman glass.  TP 26, not far away and close to the Westbrook, yielded two much corroded Roman coins  and also a large fragment of colour-coated ware from just underneath a beaten clay surface.  A second cluster emerged in the TP36/37 area, on East Street where another fragment of quern was found, also a bone gaming counter and die and a number of small Roman pottery sherds.

 

TP 36, one of the larger single context excavated pits, yielded the only feature tentatively identified as Roman, though possibly Iron Age or Saxon.  This lay at the lowest level of the pit, where a scatter of evenly sized large flints formed what appeared to be a surface, resting on undisturbed brick earth.  A chunk of what was probably iron slag was found just to the west of the centre flint.  A few sherds of Roman pottery have been found in an overlying cont

 

 

 iii) Anglo Saxons (AD410-1050)

 

In TP 1 on the raised ground behind the Bull Inn small quantities of early, mid and late Saxon pottery were found, probably grey sandy ware rather than Ipswich ware.  The pottery was found mainly in Spits 3 and 4, just above Roman pottery.  TP 1 was an intriguing pit with a high proportion of medieval and earlier pottery throughout the levels and suggestions of pits and a beaten earth surface at the spits 3 to 4 level.

 

 

iv) Medieval  (included early and late medieval)  (AD 1050  -1550)

 

 A useful and distinctive indicator of late Saxon/Norman activity is North Kent Shelly ware, hand made, crude and simple in shape.  It is a characteristic pinkish colour with a grey fabric and high shell content.  Shelly ware was in use from the 10th century to the early 13th but unfortunately it is impossible to date within the period until the beginning of the 13th century when briefly a shell dusted form is produced at Tyler Hill.  Nineteen of the twenty seven Test Pits yielded North Kent Shelly ware.  The larger ones (TPs 27, 32 and 36) yielded relatively large quantities, associated with particular contexts and stratified below medieval and post medieval.  Only in TP 1 was this type of pottery found throughout the pit, in all four spits.

 

Hunt the Saxons produced a lot of medieval and late medieval pottery: only the shallow pits 11 and 26a did not contain any.  Only the late medieval pottery is contemporary with existing buildings – the bulk of the pottery relates to earlier occupation on those sites.

 

                          Fig 1:

Early medieval

(Shelly ware)

1050-1225

Late medieval

1400-1550

Medieval

1225-1400

 

Total

Total weight in grams from all Test Pits

1768

3086

3855

8709

The pottery finds varied in both type and character.  Around 80% of the medieval and late medieval pottery is from Tyler Hill, up in the Blean woods near Canterbury.  Of the other types, most are from the south east – the various Surrey white wares, London red wares and Wealden buff.  A few Belgian Raeren stoneware sherds (LM, TP37) represent imported late medieval wares.

 

The condition of the pottery finds varied.  The sherds range from large fragments with fresh broken edges,, some of which can be pieced together to form substantial parts of a single vessel (e.g. a late Tyler Hill splash glazed pot with a thumbed bung hole, found in TP14), to a multitude of small, very worn pieces of various origins (e.g. from TPs 27, 28, 29 and 12 ).  This latter is interpreted as midden scatter, especially when associated with similarly worn bits of animal bone and shell.  The ‘midden’ TPs all lies on the higher ground east of Tanners St and south of Lower West St, suggesting cultivation at this period in time.  Similar assemblages were found in TPs 31 and 32, in Abbey Place.  The larger unworn sherds, associated with actual habitation dumps, were most noticeably found in TPs 36, 14 and 35, plots which in all three cases are now occupied by more recently built properties (17th,,18th  and 19th century).

 

In TP 36, one of the larger pits, under a 19th / 20th century surface layer was a yellow clay layer with abundance of late medieval/ early post medieval pottery and other artefacts such as a late medieval ear scoop and lead token, itself overlying a medieval yard surface. Other features dateable to the broad medieval period were found in TPs 14, 23b, 26a and 25, all in the Tanners St/lower West St area.  The discoveries in TPs 14 and 25 relate to the tanneries of Tanners St.  TP 23b on the north side of West Street exposed a cobbled flint surface at a depth of 110cm, which was overlain by a soil deposit containing medieval midden scatter pottery and bone: the surface itself could not be dated but the absence of any clay pipe fragments or cinder/ash or any later pottery in the layer does fit with this cobbled surface being late medieval at the latest. TP26a, behind 46, Tanners St revealed a chalk surface, possibly the location of the medieval Yeldhall (Guildhall) mentioned by Jacobs (1774).

 

 

v) Post medieval  (1550-1800)

 

A great deal of post medieval material was found in the Test Pits and no pit was without at least a few pottery sherds from this period.  Those Test Pits that lay on the higher ground, however, i.e. TPs 1, 12, 27, 28 and 29, had the least post medieval material: these are the Test Pits strong on medieval and early medieval midden scatter.  Test Pits close to 17th -18th century buildings, (17, 17a, 26a, 23a) were the most productive, with TPs 8 (Bull Inn, 15th century building) and 22 (former Castle Inn, also 15th century) yielding abundantly for this period.  The finds included high quality and everyday pottery and vessel glass, tokens and coins, boot and belt buckles, and lots of early clay pipes, as well as the usual abundance of animal and fish bone, shell and building material.

 

Finally, there are the standing walls of Faversham.  In both of our study areas, there were a number of places where medieval stone (Ragstone and some Caen stone) had been used along with post medieval red brick to build boundary walls.  A pseudo-medieval arched gate was created in the 16th century at the back of Arden’s House.  This was a time when the remains of the Abbey, the Hospital of St Mary at Ospringe, the nuns’ choir end of Davington Priory church and perhaps other medieval stone buildings would all have been in circulation

 

vi) Modern times (1800 - now)

 

All Test Pits contained 19th-early 20th century pottery in at least their upper levels.  The familiar transfer printed willow pattern, Staffordshire cream ware and 19th century stoneware was found in abundance, as were glass bottles of distinctive modern kinds.  Again, it was the bank-top pits 27, 28 and 29 which produced the smallest amounts, also the pits in Abbey Place (32, 31, and 35).  The greatest amounts of modern pottery and glass were found in the two public house TPs, 8 (Bull) and 22 (Castle).  This pottery and glass is found mixed in with the ash and cinders from grates and large quantities of household debris such as animal bone, nails, and parts of broken machinery.  In our study areas, this material was humble in character.

 

In some places, (TPs 27, 29) foundations were revealed of some of the weatherboard tenements which had grown up in the 19th century and been demolished as ‘unfit for human habitation' in the 1950s and 60s.  Associated with these were intriguing artefacts such as an old spark plug, a gas mantle, and fragments of china ornaments and items of cheap jewelry.  The spaces formerly occupied by these houses are now lawns and trees, and uncovering these remains of working people’s lives is very evocative.  Then there are the ritual burials of this period – pet burials in a number of gardens.  These dog and cat remains are usually arranged within the remains of a container – a shoe box or biscuit tin- and are, like all burials, quite touching and excavated with respect.

 

 

 

6. Conclusions

 

The aims of the Hunt the Saxons project were two fold.  The research aim was to find evidence for early or mid Anglo Saxon settlement.  The second was to develop an effective and enthusiastic team for Faversham community archaeology.

 

The first was achieved in a modest but absolute way.  The area behind the Bull Inn produced evidence for continuous occupation from Roman times onwards.  As this report shows, however, FSARG found a great deal of other archaeology, sometimes in almost over whelming amounts.  The systematic approach, combined with desk top study of previous archaeological work, has enabled the start of an archaeological profile for central Faversham, covering the range, character and depth of deposits.

 

The second has been achieved beyond expectation.  Over the course of this project, around 40 people were directly involved in fieldwork, research, find processing, analysis   and write up.  At the end of the three years, FSARG had a core of around 20 increasingly experienced and trained archaeologists and had become part of the Faversham social landscape.  This is not the place to detail the numerous and varied social participatory events, but they have always been enthusiastically welcomed by Faversham people.

 

 

 

7.  Proposals

 

For the community aims, the proposal is obviously, to carry on, with  democratic decisions about future projects at open evaluation and planning meetings held each year in November.

 

In forthcoming projects, it should be possible to excavate single context even for the small pits, such is the skill now of the volunteers.  Non intrusive methods are to be developed further and built into research plans.  Training will continue to be developed, and individual members encouraged to build up expertise on specialist topics.

 

 

 

8. Site archives

 

The documentary, digital and material archives for the Hunt the Saxons project are held by the Faversham Society, 10-13 Preston St, Faversham, Kent. ME13 7NF to whom application should be made for further details. Detailed reports for all pits can be found on this website.

 

 

 

9. References

 

General history of Faversham

 

Dane, H   1975  The Story of a Thousand Years: a chronology of Faversham History  Faversham Papers No 5  Faversham:  Faversham Society

 

Hasted, E  1798    The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent  Vol 6   pp 318-371   reprinted as Faversham Paper No 6  Faversham: Faversham Society

 

Jacob, E  1774, republished 1974   History of Faversham  Faversham: The Faversham Society:

 

Kent Historic Towns Survey 2003   ‘Faversham’   Maidstone: KCC/ English Heritage

 

Swaine, A   1969  Faversham Conserved    Maidstone:  KCC. Faversham Borough Council

 

 

Archaeological excavation reports

 

Allen, T., Cotter J. & Ward A. 1992 Evaluation excavation at Faversham Gas Works  Canterbury Archaeological Trust: Canterbury

 

Philp, B.   1968 Excavations at Faversham 1965    Dover:   Kent Archaeological Rescue Unit: 1st Report in the Kent Monograph series

 

Willson, J. 1986     ‘Discoveries at the Old Institute Site at Faversham’    Kent Archaeological Review  No 85   pp 108-118

 

Willson, J.    1989   ‘ The Outer Gatehouse of Faversham Abbey’   Kent Archaeological Review  No 95  pp 110 -118

 

 

Main references for finds identification

 

Cotter, J.   1991   ‘The medieval pottery and tile industry at Tyler Hill’  in   Canterbury’s Archaeology  Canterbury: Canterbury  Archaeology Trust

 

Cotter, J.  2000    ‘Medieval shelly wares in Kent: a summary of recent research’  Canterbury

 

Archaeology Trust Annual Report 1999-2000, Part 3    Canterbury. pp 56-60

 

Cotter, J.   2002  ‘ A Medieval pottery kiln site at Daw’s Wood, Tyler Hill, near Canterbury’ Canterbury Archaeology Trust Annual Report 2001-2002  Part 3  Canterbury

 

Egan, G.   2005    Material culture in London in an age of transition  (1450-1700)   MoLAS Monograph 19   London:  MoLAS

 

Pearce, J., Vince A. & M. Jenner  1985   A dated type series of London medieval pottery Part 2: London-type ware   Special Paper No 6  London:  London and Middlesex Archaeological Society

 

Pearce, J & A. Vince  1988 A dated type series of London medieval pottery Part 4: Surrey whitewares   London: London and Middlesex Archaeological Society

 

Dr P. Reid

 

November 2009

 

 

 

Appendix 1: Hunt the Saxons field activities 2005-7

 

 

a) Test Pits excavated  for Hunt the Saxons project

 Test Pit Number

 

1

8

9

11

12

14

16

17

17A

19

22

23A

23B

24

25

26

26A

27

28

29

31

32

33

35

36

37

 

 Address

 

 

7, Beckett St

The Bull Inn, Tanners St

3, Tanners St

‘Temperance House’, Tanners St

‘Hollyhocks’, Tanners St

37, Tanners St

40, Tanners St

51, Tanners St

51, Tanners St

3, Fairlight Cottages, Tanners St

75, West St (former Castle Inn)

78, West St

78, West St

Flood Lane Recreation Area, Flood Lane

Prayer Garden, Our Lady of Carmel, Tanners St

46, Tanners St

46, Tanners St

The Yard, Tanners St

Garden of the Almshouses, South Road

18, Tanners St

13, Abbey Place

‘Fighting Cocks’, Abbey Place

88, Abbey St

82-3 Abbey St

19 East St

17 East St

 

 

Area of TP in square

metres

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

4

1

1

1

4

1

1

4

1

 

 Grid Reference

 

 

TR  01194 61421

TR  01194 61437

TR  01181 61430

TR  01167 61390

TR  01171 61320

TR  01110 61329

TR  01117 61344

TR  01121 61396

TR  01121 61396

TR  01114 61267

TR  01234 61491

TR  01255 61480

TR  01260 61494

TR  01229 61520

TR  01052 61302

TR  01108 61302

TR  01122 61359

TR  01159 61305

TR  01237 61289

TR  01166 61316

TR  01848 61677

TR  01926 61701

TR  01797 61654

TR  01820 61699

TR  01748 61324

TR  01739 61300

 

 Maximum OD *

 

 [9m]

[9m]

 [9m]

[8m]

[8m]

[5.5m]

[5m]

[5m]

[5m]

[10m]

4.9m

5.3m

4.2m

4.6m

5.1m

5.0m

6.1m

10.4

11.64m

10.55m

[7.5m]

7.62m

[8.5m]

[7.5m]

8.01m

7.94m

 

 Maximum depth in metres

1.2

1.2

1.2

0.35

0.7

1.1

1,2

0.9

0.9

1.2

1.2

1.0

1.0

1.05

0.6

1.2

1.2

1.00

0.8

0.9

1.07

1.5 ♯

1.4 ♯

1.2

1.4 ♯

1.2

 

Season dug

 

2006

2005

2005

2006

2005

2005

2006

2005

2006

2005

2005

2005

2005

2005

2005

2006

2006

2006

2006

2006

2007

2007

2007

2007

2007

2007

 

 b) Geo-resistivity surveys for Hunt the Saxons

Area surveyed

 

Flood Lane Recreation Area

Prayer Garden

Arden House garden

Fighting Cocks garden

Abbey Physic garden (small part)

13, Abbey Place garden

 

Address

 

 Flood Lane, northern end

 Our Lady of Carmel, Tanners St

 Arden’s House, Abbey St

 Fighting Cocks cottage, Abbey Place

 Church Lane extension

 13, Abbey Place

 

Grid reference

(centroid)

TR 01207 61539

TR 01052 61302

TR 01860 61704

TR -1926 61701

TR 01843 61646

TR 01848 61677

 

Maximum

OD*

4.2m

5.5m

[7.5m]

7.62

[7.7m]

7.7m

Minimum

OD*

3.5m

4.8m

[7.5m]

7.55

[7.7m]

7.3m

Season

 

2006

2006

2007

2007

2007

2007

 

c)  Other systematic  non intrusive field  methods used in Hunt the Saxons

 

a)      Flowerbed surveys

 

b)      Standing wall surveys

 

 

* [  ] indicates OD estimated from map data.

 

♯   maximum depths greater than 1.2m safety limit relate only to small sondages in the trench floor.

 

 

 

 

Appendix 2:  Location maps for activities

 

 

a)  Faversham within S E England

b)  The three Hunt the Saxons activity areas within Central Faversham

c)  Hunt the Saxons activity in Tanners and Lower West Streets

1907 OS Kent XXX1V

Geo resistivity survey

 

Trial Trench (Test Pit)

d)  Hunt the Saxons activity in Abbey Place and Abbey Street

1907 OS Kent XXX1V

e)  Hunt the Saxons activity in East Street

1907 OS Kent XXX1V

 

© 2005 - 2016 The Faversham Society Archaeological Research Group